Building a Bibliography

Every essay needs a list of books and other sources that you used to research your topic. This lists is known (at least in history) as a BIBLIOGRAPHY.

All your sources should be listed in your bibliography in alphabetical order by the author's last name.


Any book in your bibliography needs to have the following information:

  • Author's last name
  • Author's first name
  • Book Title
  • City of Publication
  • Publisher
  • Date of Publication

Smith, Tom. I Love Penguins! Toronto: Penguin Press, 2009.


For articles in magazines and other places, you need to list:

  • Author's last name
  • Author's first name
  • Title of the article
  • Title of the magazine
  • Date of the magazine (or the Volume and Issue if appropriate)
  • Pages that the article took in the magazine (such as 11-19)

Smith, Tom. "Aren't Penguins Cool?" The Penguin Magazine. March 2009. 13-18.


For any websites you use, you need to indicate:

  • Author of the webpage with the last name followed by the first name (if it's shown. It usually isn't).
  • Title of the page.
  • Complete URL/address
  • Date you last consulted the site.

I Love Penguins! Sept. 22, 2009.

Other Things to Things About

  • Magazine, book and website titles should be underlined or italicized.
  • Articles or single webpage titles should be put in quotation marks.
  • If your entry is longer than one line, the second line should be indented. This is called a hanging indent and can be found in Word under the Format-Paragraph-Indents and Spacing.
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